Perspectivas de las Relaciones Públicas: resultados del Excellence Study para la comunicación en las organizaciones

James E. Grunig, Larissa A. Grunig, Maria Aparecida Ferrari

Resumen

La comunicación en las organizaciones está afectada por variables tanto internas como externas a la organización, como la cultura, la estructura y la gestión organizativa. Algunos de los resultados del Excellence Study discutidos en el presente artículo evidencian que el valor de las relaciones públicas se crea en los relacionamientos que las organizaciones desarrollan con los públicos, especialmente con aquellos que se ubican en el interior mismo de la empresa.


Palabras clave

Relaciones Públicas; Cultura; Comunicación simétrica; Comunicación asimétrica; Diversidad

Referencias

Ash, M. K. (1995). Mary Kay you can have it all: Lifetime wisdom from America’s foremost woman entrepreneur. Rosevale, CA: Prima.

Burns, T., & Stalker, G. M. (1961). The management of innovation. London: Tavistock.

Child, J. (1972). Organizational structure, environment, and performance: The role of strategic choice. Sociology, 6(1), 2-22.

D’Aprix, R. M. (1996). Communicating for change: Connecting the workplace with the marketplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Deal, T.E., & Kennedy, A.E. (1982). Corporate culture: The rites and rituals of corporate life. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Downs, C.W., Clampitt, G.G., & Pfeifer, A.L. (1988). Communication and organizational outcomes. In G.M. Goldhaber & G.A. Barnett (Eds.), Handbook of organizational communication (pp. 171-211). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Ferrari, Maria Aparecida. (2008).Teoria e estratégias de Relações Públicas. IN Gestão Estratégica de Comunicação Organizacional e Relações Públicas. Kunsch, Margarida (org.). São Caetano do Sul, Difusão.

Ferrari, M. A. (2000). A influência dos valores organizacionais na determinação da prática e do papel dos profissionais de relações públicas: estudo comparativo entre organizações do Brasil e do Chile. São Paulo, 2000. Tese (Doutorado em Ciências da Comunicação) – ECA-USP.

Grunig, J.E. (1976). Organizations and public relations: Testing a communication theory. Journalism Monographs, 46.

Grunig, J.E. (1985, May). A structural reconceptualization of the organizational communication audit, with application to a state department of education. Paper presented to the International Communication Association, Honolulu.

Grunig, J.E. (1987). An audit of organizational structure, job satisfaction, and the communication system in the Allegany County School System. Cumberland, MD: Allegany County Board of Education.

Grunig, J.E. (1992). Symmetrical systems of internal communication. In J. E. Grunig (Ed.), Excellence in public relations and communication management (pp. 531-576). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Grunig, J.E., & Grunig, L.A. (1989). Toward a theory of the public relations behavior of organizations: Review of a program of research. In J.E. Grunig & L.A. Grunig (Eds.), Public relations research annual (Vol. 1, pp. 27-63). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Grunig, J.E., & Hunt, T. (1984). Managing public relations. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Grunig, L.A., Grunig, J.E., & Ehling, W.P. (1992). What is an effective organization? In J. E. Grunig (Ed.), Excellence in public relations and communication management (pp. 65-90). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hage, J. (1965). An axiomatic theory of organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 10, 289-320.

Hage, J. (1980). Theories of organizations; Form, process, and transformation. New York: Wiley.

Hage, J., & Aiken, M. (1967a). Program change and organizational properties: A comparative analysis. American Journal of Sociology, 72, 503-519.

Hage, J., & Aiken, M. (1967b). Relationship of centralization to other structural properties. Administrative Science Quarterly, 12, 72-91.

Hage, J., & Aiken, M. (1970). Social change in complex organizations. New York: Random House.

Hall, R.H. (1987). Organizations: Structures, processes, and outcomes (3rd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Hatch, M. J. (1997). Organization Theory: Modern, Symbolic, and Postmodern Perspectives. Oxford University Press, pp. 161, 180.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's consequences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Hull, F., & Hage, J. (1982). Organizing for innovation: Beyond Burns and Stalker’s organic type. Sociology, 16, 564-577.

Kim, J. –N. (2006). Communicant activeness, cognitive entrepreneurship and a situacional theory of problema solving. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.

Kluckhohn, C. (1951). The study of culture. In D. Lerner & H. Lasswell (Eds.), The policy sciences: Recent developments in scope and method (pp. 86-101). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Lawler, E. E., III (1986). High-involvement management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Locke, E.A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M.D. Dunnettee (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1297-1349). Chicago: Rand McNally.

Mitroff, I.I. (1983). Stakeholders of the organizational mind. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Monge, P. R., & Miller, K. I. (1988). Participative processes in organizations. In G. M. Goldhaber & G. A. Barnett (Eds.), Handbook of organizational communication (pp. 213-229). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Ouchi, W.G. (1981). Theory Z: How American business can meet the Japanese challenge. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Pascale, R.T., & Athos, A.G. (1981). The art of Japanese management. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Peters, T.J., & Waterman, R.H., Jr. (1982). In search of excellence. New York: Harper & Row.

Robbins, S.P. (1990). Organization theory: Structure, design, and applications (3rd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Schein, E.H. (1984). Coming to a new awareness of organizational culture. Sloan Management Review, 25, 3-16.

Schein, E.H. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Schneider, B. (1985). Organizational behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 573-611.

Schneider (aka L. Grunig), L.A. (1985a). Organizational structure, environmental niches, and public relations: The Hage-Hull typology of organizations as predictor of communication behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.

Schneider (aka L. Grunig), L.A. (1985b). The role of public relations in four organizational types. Journalism Quarterly, 62, 567-576, 594.

Shafer, P. (1994). Adding value to the public affairs function: Using quality to improve performance. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Council.

Sriramesh, K., Grunig, J. E., & Buffington, J. (1992). Corporate culture and public relations. In J. E. Grunig (Ed.), Excellence in public relations and communication management (pp. 577-595). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Van Riel, C.B.M. (1995). Principles of corporate communication. London: Prentice-Hall.

Vroom, V. H., & Jago, A. G. (1988). The new leadership: Managing participation in organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Wallach, E.J. (1983). Individuals and organizations: The cultural match. Training and Development Journal, 37(2), 29-36.

Weick, K. E. (1979). The social psychology of organizing (2nd Ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/MEDCOM2015.6.2.01





Copyright (c) 2015 Revista Mediterránea de Comunicación conserva los derechos patrimoniales (copyright) de las obras publicadas, y favorece y permite la reutilización de las mismas bajo la licencia de uso CC BY-SA 3.0 ES.

URL de la licencia: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/es/