Revista Mediterránea de Comunicación

Satisfacción corporal y uso de pantallas en escolares españoles

J.-Roberto Sánchez-Reina, Mònika Jiménez-Morales, Mireia Montaña-Blasco

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/MEDCOM.23406

Resumen

El uso de pantallas entre los menores ha aumentado drásticamente en los últimos años. Aunque el consumo mediático es considerado un factor influyente en la satisfacción corporal infantil, la relación entre el consumo de pantallas y la satisfacción corporal en menores de diez años es un tema aún poco explorado. Se diseñó un estudio transversal con una muestra de 792 estudiantes (N = 363 niños, 429 niñas, M = 7.23 años) para analizar la asociación entre el uso de pantallas y la satisfacción corporal en niños y niñas de 5 a 9 años. Los resultados muestran relaciones entre el consumo de televisión y videojuegos y la satisfacción de rasgos faciales y esquema corporal global. Las observaciones por sexo indicaron correlaciones positivas para el consumo de televisión y la satisfacción con el peso entre los varones mientras que en las niñas se observó una asociación negativa para el consumo de videojuegos y la satisfacción de la piel y el esquema corporal global. Los análisis de regresión múltiple revelaron una asociación positiva para el consumo de televisión con la satisfacción con el peso, la cara y el cabello; por su parte, el uso de videojuegos se asoció negativamente con la satisfacción con el color de los ojos y la piel. Este estudio aporta un mayor conocimiento sobre la relación entre consumo de pantallas y satisfacción corporal infantil y puede contribuir al diseño de intervenciones de alfabetización mediática más estratégicas y focalizadas, sobre todo entre aquellas poblaciones menos exploradas como la audiencia infantil.

Palabras clave

Audiencia infantil; imagen corporal; medios digitales; percepción corporal; psicología de los medios; satisfacción corporal

Texto completo:

PDF (English) PDF Estadísticas

Referencias

Asociación para la Investigación de Medios de la Comunicación [AIMC]. (Ed.) (2019). Marco General de los Medios en España 2019. https://bit.ly/2U5d36q

Amado Alonso, D., León-Del-Barco, B., Mendo-Lázaro, S., & Iglesias Gallego, D. (2020). Examining Body Satisfaction and Emotional–Social Intelligence among School Children: Educational Implications. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(6), 2120. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062120

Anschutz, D. J., Engels, R. C., & Van Strien, T. (2012). Increased body satisfaction after exposure to thin-ideal children's television in young girls showing thin ideal internalisation. Psychology & Health, 27(5), 603-617. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2011.613470

Añez, E., Fornieles-Deu, A., Fauquet-Ars, J., López-Guimerà, G., Puntí-Vidal, J., & Sánchez-Carracedo, D. (2018). Body image dissatisfaction, physical activity and screen-time in Spanish adolescents. Journal of Health Psychology, 23(1), 36–47. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105316664134

Barlett, C., & Harris, R. (2008). The impact of body emphasizing video games on body image concerns in men and women. Sex Roles, 59(7-8), 586-601. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-008-9457-8

Brito, R., Dias, P., & Oliveira, G. (2018). Young children, digital media and smart toys: How perceptions shape adoption and domestication. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(5), 807–820. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12655

Cash, T., & Smolak, L. (2011). Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention. Guilford Press.

Castelló-Martínez, A., & Tur-Viñes, V. (2020). Obesity and food-related content aimed at children on YouTube. Clinical Obesity, 10(5). https://doi.org/10.1111/cob.12389

Cernikova, M., Smahel, D., & Wright, M. (2017). Children’s Experiences and Awareness about Impact of Digital Media on Health. Health Communication, 33(6), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2017.1298197

Chaudron, S. (2015). Young children (0-8) and digital technology. A qualitative exploratory study across seven countries. European Commission Joint Research Centre. https://bit.ly/3dgut7R

Costa, L., Silva, D. A., Alvarenga, M., & de Vasconcelos, F. (2016). Association between body image dissatisfaction and obesity among schoolchildren aged 7–10 years. Physicology & Behavior, 160, 6–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PHYSBEH.2016.03.022

Daraganova, G. (2014). Body image of primary school children. Annual Statistical Report 2013. Australian Institute of Families Studies. AIFS. https://bit.ly/3QN8mc4

Damiano, S. R., Hart, L., Paxton, S. J., Cornell, C., & Sutherland, F. (2014). Are body image and eating attitudes, behaviours, and knowledge of parents of pre-schoolers associated with parent feeding practices? Journal of Eating Disorders, 2(1), 1-1. https://doi.org/10.1186/2050-2974-2-S1-O34

Duchin, O., Marin, C., Mora-Plazas, M., Mendes de Leon, C., Lee, J. M., Baylin, A., & Villamor, E. (2015). A prospective study of body image dissatisfaction and BMI change in school-age children. Public Health Nutrition, 18(2), 322–328. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980014000366

Dumas, A., & Desroches, S. (2019). Women’s Use of Social Media: What Is the Evidence About Their Impact on Weight Management and Body Image? Current Obesity Reports, 8(1), 18–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13679-019-0324-4

Eyal, K., & Te’eni-Harari, T. (2013). Explaining the relationship between media exposure and early adolescents’ body image perceptions: The role of favorite characters. Journal of Media Psychology, 25(3), 129–141. https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-1105/a000094

Fisher-Keller, J. (2007). How Do Kids’ Self-Identities Relate to Media Experiences in Everyday Life? In S. Mazzarella (Ed.), 20 Questions about Youth & the Media (pp. 225-237). Peter Lang.

Grogan, S. (2016). Body image: Understanding body dissatisfaction in men, women and children. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315681528

Haddad, C., Zakhour, M., Akel, M., Honein, K., Akiki, M., Hallit, S., & Obeid, S. (2019). Factors associated with body dissatisfaction among the Lebanese population. Eating and weight disorders-studies on anorexia, bulimia and obesity, 24(3), 507-519. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-018-00634-z

Hall, L., Hume, C., & Tazzyman, S. (2016, June). Five degrees of happiness: Effective smiley face likert scales for evaluating with children. In Proceedings of the the 15th international conference on interaction design and children (pp. 311-321). https://doi.org/10.1145/2930674.2930719

Heidelberger, L., & Smith, C. (2018). Low-Income, African American and American Indian children’s viewpoints on body image assessment tools and body satisfaction: A mixed methods study. Maternal and child health journal, 22(9), 1327-1338. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-018-2513-2

Jarman, H. K., McLean, S. A., Slater, A., Marques, M. D., & Paxton, S. J. (2021). Direct and indirect relationships between social media use and body satisfaction: A prospective study among adolescent boys and girls. New Media & Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/14614448211058468

Jordan-Jackson, F., Chapa, S., Lee, J., & Davis, K. (2019). The role of ethnicity in the relationship between media exposure and female body dissatisfaction. Journal of Cultural Marketing Strategy, 3(2), 131-151. https://bit.ly/3A3PChV

Kantar Media. (2021). Media Trends and Predictions Report ES. Kantar Global. https://bit.ly/3QSc7x2

Kelly, Y., Zilanawala, A., Booker, C., & Sacker, A. (2018). Social media use and adolescent mental health: Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. EClinicalMedicine, 6, 59-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2018.12.005

Latiff, A., Muhamad, J., & Rahman, R. (2018). Body image dissatisfaction and its determinants among young primary-school adolescents. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 13(1), 34–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.07.003

Lemes, D. C.; Gonçalves-Câmara, S., Guimares-Alves, G., & Aerts, D. (2018). Body image satisfaction and subjective wellbeing among ninth-grade students attending state schools in Canoas, Brazil. Ciencia & saude coletiva, 23, 4289-4298. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-812320182312.14742016

López Sánchez, G. F., Suárez, A. D., & Smith, L. (2018). Análisis de imagen corporal y obesidad mediante las siluetas de Stunkard en niños y adolescentes españoles de 3 a 18 años. Anales de Psicología/Annals of Psychology, 34(1), 167-172. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.34.1.294781

Núñez-Gómez, P., Ortega-Mohedano, F., & Larrañaga-Martínez, K. (2021). Hábitos de uso y consumo de pantallas inteligentes entre niños/as de 7 a 9 años en España. Revista Mediterránea de Comunicación, 12(1), 191-204. https://doi.org/10.14198/MEDCOM000009

Penelo, E., Espinoza, P., Portell, M., & Raich, R. (2012). Assessment of body image: Psychometric properties of the Body Image Questionnaire. Journal of Health Psychology, 17(4), 556-566. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105311417913

Qustodio (2022). The Qustodio Annual Data Report 2021: Living and learning in a digital world. https://bit.ly/3xZ4Nsw

Reid Chassiakos Y., Radesky J., Christakis D., Moreno M., Cross C., Council On Communications and Media, Hill, D., Ameenudin, N., Hutchinson, J., Levine, A., Boyd, A., Mendelson, R., Swanson, W. (2016). Children and Adolescents and Digital Media. Pediatrics. 138(5). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2593

Richards, D., Caldwell, P. H., & Go, H. (2015). Impact of social media on the health of children and young people. Journal of paediatrics and child health, 51(12), 1152-1157. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.13023

Rodgers, R. F., Wertheim, E. H., Damiano, S. R., & Paxton, S. J. (2020). Maternal influences on body image and eating concerns among 7 and 8-year-old boys and girls: Cross-sectional and prospective relations. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 53(1), 79-84. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.23166

Sánchez Castillo, S., Sánchez, G. F. L., Ahmed, M. D., & Suárez, A. D. (2019). Imagen Corporal y Obesidad mediante las Siluetas de Stunkard en Niños y adolescentes indios de 8 a 15 años. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 19(1), 19-31. https://doi.org/10.6018/cpd.335621

Sánchez-Zafra, M., Zurita-Ortega, F., Ramírez-Granizo, I., Puertas-Molero, P., González-Valero, G., & Ubago-Jiménez, J. (2019). Niveles de autoconcepto y su relación con el uso de videojuegos en escolares de tercer ciclo de primaria. Journal of Sport & Health Research, 11(1). https://bit.ly/3ppnLn8

Smolak, L. (2004). Body image in children and adolescents: where do we go from here? Body image, 1(1), 15-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1740-1445(03)00008-1

Spurr, S., Berry, L., & Walker, K. (2013). Exploring adolescent views of body image: The influence of media. Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing, 36(1–2), 17–36. https://doi.org/10.3109/01460862.2013.776145

Sylvia, Z., King, T., & Morse, B. (2014). Virtual ideals: The effect of video game play on male body image. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 183-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.04.029

Tatangelo, G., & Ricciardelli, L. (2017). Children’s body image and social comparisons with peers and the media. Journal of Health Psychology, 22(6), 776–787. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105315615409

Uchôa, F., Uchôa, N. M., Daniele, T., Lustosa, R. P., Garrido, N. D., Deana, N. F., Aranha, Á., & Alves, N. (2019). Influence of the mass media and body dissatisfaction on the risk in adolescents of developing eating disorders. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(9), 1508. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091508

Wartella, E. A., Lovato, S. B., Pila, S., Lauricella, A. R., Echevarria, R., Evans, J., & Hightower, B. (2018). Digital media use by young children: Learning, effects, and health outcomes. In Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and the Media (pp. 173-186). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-54854-0.00016-3

Yang, J., Fardouly, J., Wang, Y., & Shi, W. (2020). Selfie-Viewing and Facial Dissatisfaction among Emerging Adults: A Moderated Mediation Model of Appearance Comparisons and Self-Objectification. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(2), 672. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020672




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/MEDCOM.23406





Copyright (c) 2018 J Roberto Sánchez Reina, Mònika Jiménez-Morales, Mireia Montaña Blasco

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.